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Everything for aggressive dog behavior

Aggressive Dog Behavior

In this article , you will learn how to stop dog aggression and every thing about aggressive dog behavior problem, all dogs from the gigantic Neapolitan Mastiff to the smallest Pomeranian, are capable of aggression and all of them are potential biters. Aggression is a natural canine response in some situations.

The difference between dominance and aggression.

The first tip to answer the question how to stop dog aggression is knowing the difference between dominance and aggression.the “Dominance” where dogs are concerned is generally misunderstood, because people think of it in human terms. In our world, dominance implies a power struggle, a win/lose situation, whereas with dogs it is a word that relates to a natural, harmless aspect of body language in encounters between dogs.

However, if people do not understand what canine body language is conveying when it occurs in dog-human interchanges, the person’s response will not put the dog with dominant tendencies “in his place.” Often, just the opposite happens— either because the person didn’t understand the dog’s body language or because it was just easier to go along with whatever the dog wanted.

aggressive dog behavior & How to stop dog aggression.


In a dog who already has an inflated sense of his own importance, that can lead to an escalation in his attempts to exert power. This may sound kind of silly—unless you see it from a canine perspective. When questions about acceptable behavior arise—and you don’t make it clear to your dog (especially a large-breed dog with big teeth and strong muscles) who is in charge of the when/where/how in your house—you will be sending that dog down the road to becoming demanding, aggressive . . . and perhaps dangerous.

When a dog does the natural thing and uses his teeth to stake out his “rightful claim” to supremacy in the household, this is an entitlement that you have mistakenly given him. It may lead to someone being bitten. It may lead to the dog being put down. And all of it is preventable by you.

Signs of Dominant Behavior

  • Toy-guarding: snaps, growls or bites when you come close.
  • Food-guarding: snarls, snaps or chases you away from his bowl.
  • Furniture-guarding: claims one or more pieces of furniture, or spots on them, and won’t get off when asked, resistance that may include growling, lip curling and snapping.
  • Attention-demanding: begs, whines, paws or barks at you, and you can’t stop him.
  • Dinner-interrupting: barks, whines or paws when you’re at the table and won’t stop when told. May even try to take food from you.

If your dog has any of the issues mentioned, the sooner you nip them in the bud, the more pleasurable your dog will be to be around—and he will be around. It is really important that dog owners make a clear-eyed appraisal of their dog’s behavior. No excuses.

Making Excuses for Bad Behavior

The 2nd tip to answer the question how to stop dog aggression is not making excuses for bad behavior. You’re playing with fire if you indulge your dog’s dubious behavior by making excuses for her. It may be that you really feel sorry for her, or maybe you feel badly that you aren’t around as much as you’d like to be, but guess what: there is no excuse for a dog to stake claim in a human context. It is vitally important that you and those around you are clear that there is no excuse for aggressive behavior from a dog to a human.

Sometimes people are in denial about their dog’s nasty actions—or they just don’t want to deal with it. So when the dog gets up on the couch and won’t get down, or is on the person’s bed and growls as her owner tries to move her aside, these owners will excuse what can never be excusable, instead of firmly taking charge and ending the nastiness right then and there.

You may have heard people “explaining”: “Poor thing— she’s tired/cold/lonely/doesn’t like holidays/her arthritis is acting up/etc.” These people may do the same thing about poor behavior from their children or spouse —but keep in mind that the behavior of those people doesn’t usually end with them biting somebody.

How dog aggression escalates ?

The 3rd tip to answer the question how to stop dog aggression is knowing how dog aggression escalates.What follows is a chart of the signs of aggression, which become more serious as they progress—and make no mistake, aggression does worsen. Every time the dog gets away with his display of aggression and has opportunities to rehearse the aggressive behavior, it becomes an even more ingrained habit.

This shows you how a fairly small issue of disobedience or willfulness can escalate into full-blown aggression. If any of the elements here apply to your dog, then correct the problem ASAP with obedience work.

And remember that, especially for an aggressive dog behavior problem, you should try to make obedience sessions fun, without any punitive component. If you work with a professional trainer, be sure to pick one who takes a gentle, kind, accentuate-the-positive attitude toward the dog.

The escalation of aggressive behavior body language

  • A “dirty look”—a mean or tough expression
  • A direct stare right at your eyes.
  • A rigid body
  • Moving stiffly, very slowly
  • Snarling
  • Growling from the throat (the least serious growl)
  • Growling from the chest
  • Growling from deep in the belly (the most serious growl)
  • A half-snap—biting the air near you
  • A bruising bite (leaves a red mark or bruise, but doesn’t break skin)
  • A hard bite that punctures skin, drawing blood

1) Disobedience

The Disobedience escalates the aggressive dog behavior. Firstly the dog stubbornly refuses to do what you ask. Or the dog (or older puppy) who has been obedient suddenly stops responding. This is passive aggression. If you let it pass instead of pressing on with unemotional, firm resolve, you are paving the road to hell.

2) Staring

Staring is one of the most important things escalate the aggressive dog behavior. The dog may give you a direct stare—which is viewed as highly aggressive coming from some dogs, yet there are some breeds that have what is called “a lot of eye” because they watch human faces for information. Some breeds known to have a lot of eye are Border Collies, Jack Russell Terriers and Pit Bulls, and their staring has to do with picking up clues from studying your face.

However, there are dogs who do have a very aggressive stare, often accompanied by being motionless while staring, which is even more threatening in dog body language. This dog may be ready to do you harm. You need a professional to help you before that happens.

how to stop aggressive dog behavior

3) Growling

Also growling escalates the aggressive dog behavior. The dog tries to back you off with the first level of growling, a “throat growl.” If left unchecked, this can escalate to a chest growl, and lastly, a belly growl.

  • You must not back down. If you back down, the dog is satisfied with his strength: his position is solidified. (Compare this to not sticking to your guns with a petulant human teenager: if she can get away with backtalk, then next time her behavior will be even worse.
  • Hold your ground, but do not corner the dog. Do not escalate a confrontation.
  • Don’t make excuses for the dog. Demand obedience firmly. But it’s not adversarial—just boss and underling. You remain calm, waiting for compliance.
  • Avoid being harsh when you correct a growl, because that form of communication can be a valuable warning from a dog that he needs some space. If you react too strongly to a dog’s growling, you could stop the behavior but lose the message the dog is sending. Removing the growl from a dog’s vocabulary leaves him with no way to give a warning before he reacts more aggressively.

What causes a dog to be aggressive?

The 4th tip to answer the question how to stop dog aggression is knowing the reasons of dog aggression. All dogs, from the gigantic Neapolitan Mastiff to the smallest Pomeranian, are capable of aggression and all of them are potential biters. Aggression is a natural canine response in some situations. Dogs have that mouthful of sharp teeth for both offensive and defensive purposes. You have to train a dog not to bite. Our job as dog owners is to integrate our dogs into our world and suppress their natural instinct to use their teeth.

(A) Aggression Can Be Inherited.

The first cause of aggressive dog behavior can be inherited. Dog aggression is considered an inherited trait, although a dog’s environment can create aggressive behavior just as reliably. If you pick a puppy from the litter that is bullying the others and already “top dog,” then it is in his personality.

Aggressive leanings are pretty easy to correct at the beginning—but later, if the habits have been allowed to develop, aggression becomes nearly impossible to extinguish.

Many of the large working breeds need a lot of training and exercise, although some enormous dogs like the English Mastiff are couch potatoes by nature. You have to work to socialize any dog properly and to take responsibility for guarding against inborn aggressive tendencies.

If you choose a breed that was developed for fighting, like a Pit Bull, or one bred for guarding, like a Doberman Pinscher, Rottweiler or Akita, then the aggressive tendency lies within them and may need attention.

(B) Things That Increase Dog Aggression

The 2nd cause of aggressive dog behavior can involve these things:

1- Dog aggression and biting start in puppyhood. If a dog was taken from his family before eight weeks, he has missed an important lesson about bite pressure. So we have to decrease the puppy’s tendency to mouth and bite us. We have to train a puppy to use less force when he bites.

2- Puppies or adult dogs who have been isolated from other dogs and people, or been teased or taunted by them, carry the seeds of aggressive behavior.

3- Owners who hit dogs, kick them or yell at them can also trigger the problem: dogs can become aggressive because they have to defend themselves.

4- Playing inappropriate games such as play-fighting and wrestling is another way in which people can stimulate aggression.

5- Encouraging “protective” behavior in a dog can backfire—teaching a dog to bark at people or menace them creates a ticking bomb. Training a “guard” or a “watch” dog is a job that should be left to professionals.

(C) Other reasons dogs become aggressive

The 3rd cause of aggressive dog behavior can involve these things:

1-The dog is in pain. Ruling out a medical reason for aggression should be the first thing you do. Take an aggressive dog to the vet so you can make sure the dog isn’t in pain and being aggressive because of it.

Keep track of what circumstances have triggered your dog’s aggression—this may be a clue for the vet. Note everything from the time of day to what he’s eaten to what the weather was like, to what he was doing prior to the aggression.

2-Hypothyroidism has been linked to aggression. A thyroid gland that doesn’t produce enough thyroxine doesn’t trigger aggression, but it can make an already aggressive dog more irritable. Ask the vet to include a thyroid-function test in his diagnostic checkup if he doesn’t mention it.

3-Medications Certain medications can trigger aggression or increase a natural tendency. Prednisone (cortisone pills) is often given for skin problems, and is one of the drugs linked to aggression in dogs. Talk to your vet about other options if your dog is on this medication, and be sure to let the doctor know if any medicine the dog is taking seems to have an effect on his personality.

Warning threats, not aggression

“Dog Aggression” should only be used to describe biting or behavior that will do actual harm. People make the mistake of labeling defensive communication from a dog as “aggression,” simply because they don’t understand the basically passive intention of the behavior.

These behaviors—barking, growling, baring teeth, staring—are intended to communicate to the recipient to stop or to go away. These behaviors are not aggressive by our definition of the word, because the signals are not intended to harm, just to send a warning message.

Other dogs all know what these facial or body-language signs mean: if the dog who receives these messages heeds them, they actually prevent aggression from occurring. The dog backs off and there’s nothing to report.

Warning signs of dog aggression

1- Growling Is a Warning of Impending Aggression.

You have to take growling very seriously. In any circumstance where the dog has signaled his displeasure with a growl, it adds up to no good. You can’t make excuses for growling or hope it was a one-time thing. It is a part of an escalating aggressive pattern that will have a terrible ending if you don’t nip it in the bud.

2-Barking Can Also Be a Warning Signal.

If a dog is barking right at you, and has assumed a stance with all four feet planted, the body leaning toward you and the tail held high and perhaps wagging slowly, that is aggressive body language. If you (or another dog) do not back off or leave as a response to that barking, the dog may escalate the aggression level to get his displeasure across more clearly.

3-Warning Body Language

The dog will be leaning slightly forward, ears forward, standing tall on the front legs. He’ll have a fixed, steely expression in his eyes. His hackles—the hair above the shoulder blades—will be raised.

The bark may be a low, throaty one, or it can even be shrill—but if it’s accompanied by a menacing show of front teeth, it’s the real deal.

Do not confront a dog exhibiting any of these behaviors—do not put him on the defensive by reprimanding him, and certainly do not literally back him into a corner, because he will come out swinging with a mouthful of very sharp teeth.

4-Striking or Threatening a Dog with Aggressive Tendencies

Hitting any dog can bring out defensive aggression in him—with an already aggressive dog behavior, it can push him over the edge to action with his teeth.

5-Know Your Own Dog’s Signs.

Get in the habit of paying attention to your dog’s personal idiosyncrasies and the signals he sends. For example, what if he gets nervous around toddlers? That means that if a small child is running and screaming around him, the dog might growl or freeze or curl his lip defensively, but you have to pick up on that information and separate him from that child.

Types of the dog aggression

The 5th tip to answer the question how to stop dog aggression is selecting dog aggression types which include:

(A) Territorial Aggression

The first type of the aggressive dog behavior is territorial aggression which occurs when a dog is protecting an area that he considers his. Some dogs will attack and bite a person who enters the home. Others will act aggressively when anyone enters the yard. Others are territorial about vehicles or their crates. Studies have shown that dogs that are chained in yards have an increased amount of territorial aggression.

Some people like it when their dogs are territorial, but this is a slippery slope. A dog does not automatically know who is a bad person and who isn’t. If your dog is protecting your home by acting aggressively, he is just as likely to act that way toward your neighbor’s daughter who comes to visit as he is toward a criminal.

aggressive dog behavior & How to stop dog aggression

Different areas have different laws about whether you will be liable if your dog bites or injures someone when they are on your property. Don’t assume that you will not be held responsible; check your local area’s ordinances. Even if the law says you’re in the clear, you would feel awful if an innocent person was injured by your dog.

Some people think that their dogs are exhibiting territorial aggression when, in fact, they are actually scared of people. The dog is barking and growling not because he wants to protect his property, but because he thinks that people are scary and wants them to go away. How can you tell the difference? The dog will normally exhibit the same territorial behavior elsewhere, in areas other than what you would consider his “home turf.”

If your dog is exhibiting territorial aggression, management is your best tool until you can implement a behavior-modification program with a professional trainer. Ensure that your fence is tall and secure, and consider putting a lock on it so unauthorized people will find it harder to enter.

Do not use an underground fencing system. The use of electric shock is not recommended in general, but it can also cause aggressive behavior to escalate. A territorial dog’s aggressive behavior is already escalated, and the additional punishment of an electric shock can trigger an attack.

If you know that guests are coming over, confine your dog. After your guests are settled, if your dog has a history of accepting people in your home, bring your dog out on leash for extra control. Use your clicker and treats to reward relaxed, social behavior.

If your dog is protective of his crate or the car, here is how you can train your dog to have a better response than aggression.

Goal: Your dog will not exhibit aggression when people approach his crate or your car.

What You’ll Need: Treats, other people to help you.

  1. Have the other person walk past the crate or car, several feet (m) away.
  2. As soon as your dog sees the person, start feeding him treats, even if he growls or lunges. If he is so agitated he will not eat the treats, start over with the person farther away.
  3. As soon as the person has walked by and your dog can no longer see him or her, stop the treats. Ignore your dog.
  4. Repeat Steps 1–3 nineteen times. End your training session.

Tips: You are trying to change your dog’s opinion of people approaching his crate or car. This is why you feed him even if he is growling or lunging. Just rapidly feed him as long as the person is within his sight. You will find that his outbursts become less volatile as he starts to anticipate food instead of worrying about the person’s approach. This may take many sessions, depending on how long your dog has been practicing this behavior.

(B) Aggression toward People

The 2nd type of the aggressive dog behavior is aggression toward people. Most dog aggression is based in fear. Dogs that are frightened of people often act aggressively— growling, barking, snapping, snarling, biting. Punishing your dog won’t get rid of the fear. You need to teach your dog that people are nice and are nothing to be afraid of. This must be done very carefully, and gradually, preferably with the help of a professional.

Do not force your dog to confront his fear. This will make the fear much worse. For example, if your dog is scared of men, don’t hand your dog’s leash to a man or make your dog approach a man. The man could be a wonderful person, but in your dog’s eyes, you just handed his leash over to or made him approach a monster.

aggressive dog behavior & How to stop dog aggression

If your dog is aggressive toward strangers, implement a stringent management plan until you can get professional help. Keep him away from strangers. If you have guests over, you can put him in his crate, in another room, or behind a secure baby gate so that he can’t reach your guests and become overwhelmed.

If he’s crated or behind a baby gate where you can easily reach him, you can toss treats to him while your guests are over. You can give him a bully stick or food-stuffed chew toy. Do not let your guests give him treats. A very food motivated but fearful , dog could get overwhelmed, so he will approach a stranger to take a treat but then become overwhelmed by the proximity. This can lead to a bite.

Using Muzzles

  • Muzzles get a bad rap. It’s true that when people see your dog wearing a muzzle, they may react negatively. But to an aggressive dog and his owner, a muzzle may be your best friend. Training your dog to happily wear a muzzle keeps everyone safer. If you know that your dog can’t hurt someone, you’ll feel less apprehension.
  • Choose a basket muzzle that will allow your dog to pant, drink water, and take treats. If your dog will need to wear the muzzle for an extended period of time, you don’t want it to constrict his ability to breathe.
  • Slowly introduce your dog to the muzzle. Smear peanut butter or cream cheese in the bottom, and encourage him to stick his nose into the muzzle to get the treat. When he’s happily poking his nose into the muzzle, fasten it briefly and then immediately remove it. Gradually work up to where your dog wears the muzzle for longer periods of time.
  • If your dog is aggressive at the veterinarian’s office, then your vet will appreciate you acclimating him to a muzzle beforehand. Put the muzzle on before you enter the facility. When the veterinary staff needs to muzzle an aggressive dog that isn’t used to one, it’s much more stressful for the dog.
  • A muzzle can also be an added safety net to your management program. If you have your dog behind a baby gate and he is wearing a muzzle, you have some added protection if he somehow gets out of the gate.

(C) Aggression toward Other Dogs

The 3rd type of the aggressive dog behavior is aggression toward other dogs. Some dogs are great with people, but they are aggressive toward other dogs. This can be due to fear. Dogs that haven’t been socialized with other dogs can be fearful of them and act aggressively as a result. Some dogs are also antagonistic toward other dogs. Certain breeds historically were bred to fight other dogs, and even though dogfighting is no longer legal, their DNA may still tend toward dog aggression.

Some dogs can learn to love other dogs, while others can learn to tolerate them. Others may never learn to be in the presence of other dogs without being aggressive. It depends on the individual dog, the dog’s socialization history, how long the dog has been aggressive toward other dogs, the training methods used to address his aggression, and other factors.

Until you can get professional help, carefully manage the situation so that your dog does not encounter strange dogs. Taking your dog to a dog park to socialize him is not wise and will likely make the problem worse … not to mention cause problems for the other dogs there.

Handling Aggression toward Other Dogs

  1. Stay out of it. A good way to get badly hurt is to try to break up a fight. You can be the victim of a bite intended for the other dog if you get between them. More serious is if one dog turns on you. Now you have a much bigger problem.
  2. NEVER reach between them and try to separate them by their collars. People know this, but their instinct for self-preservation seems to get lost in the horrible sights and sounds of a dogfight. Your hands and arms have no chance against two sets of canine teeth in an adrenalized fury.
  3. Grab the rear legs of the dog fighting hardest—lift up, then back. Or take hold of the base of the tail and pull straight back. A dog can’t fight while he’s being held up like a wheelbarrow racer or being pulled backward by his tail. And he can’t get at you, either, because you’re not at the biting end. However, only attempt this if you feel you have the height and strength to accomplish it and hang on.
  4. Water is a great equalizer. Depending on what you are close to when a fight breaks out, grab the dogs’ water bowl and heave the contents right at their heads. If you’re in the kitchen, pull the sink sprayer out and aim right for their mouths. Use any handy liquid (except hot or chemical, obviously) that can drench and startle them. If you’re outside and near a garden hose, grab it and shoot water right in their faces—this will make them let go, but keep the water coming to keep them apart, because with the adrenaline still pumping they may try to go at it again if you stop soaking them.
  5. Throw a blanket over the dog—preferably one blanket over each one of the fighters. Being cut off from sensory input around them may confuse them or lower their aggressive drive. Blankets are useful because it becomes possible to reach in and separate the blanketed dogs with less risk of getting accidentally bitten.
  6. Aversive sprays work well, and they’re portable and practical. One spray you can purchase is called Direct Stop, which is a harmless citronella spray that is an effective tool for interrupting a dogfight

(D) Resource Guarding

The 4th type of the aggressive dog behavior is resource guarding. Dog aggression over food, toys, and other items is called resource guarding. Growling is not the only symptom; other signs include tensing when you approach, turning away from you and getting in between you and the item, carrying the item away, or, if it’s food, eating faster.

aggressive dog behavior & How to stop dog aggression

There are tons of clips on video websites showcasing dogs growling over objects, much to the amusement of the public. These are not funny. Even the tiniest of dogs growling over a bone can deliver a bite. What if he bites a child? A dog that growls over an object is stressed. He growls to let you know that he’s upset. If you persist and try to take the object from him, he may feel that he needs to elevate his communication to a bite.

If your dog is growling over objects, keep a list of everything that he growls over and remove them from his environment until you get professional help. The list will help you determine how to address the issue—you will start working with least valued items first.

For example, your dog doesn’t growl over plastic chew bones. He tenses and gets in between you and tennis balls. He growls over bully sticks. You would start with the plastic chew bones. Here is an example of the beginning training process.

Goal: Your dog will not resource guard.

What You’ll Need: Treats. Item that your dog does not resource guard.

  1. Give your dog the item. Let him chew on it for a few seconds.
  2. Show your dog a treat. When he drops the item, give him the treat.
  3. Repeat Steps 1–2 nine times. End your training session.

Tip: What this does is teach your dog that if he drops an item, he gets paid for it. This is the
foundation for more complex versions of this exercise, with which a professional trainer can
assist you. You want your dog learn that it’s OK to share!

How to stop dog aggression

To answer the question how to stop dog aggression is following these below steps and previous mentioned tips which help you in the dealing with aggressive dog.

1-Neuter the Dog.

The first step to answer the question how to stop dog aggression is neutering which will lessen a dog’s aggression level. He will no longer smell like a threat, so other dogs will stop reacting to him as though he is a threat.

And don’t worry about a neutered dog becoming fat—like most of us, pounds stay off with more exercise and a little less dinner. Spaying will usually not lessen the aggression level of a fighting female.

2-Don’t Allow a Male Dog to Lift His Leg Everywhere.

The 2nd step to answer the question how to stop dog aggression is not allowing a male dog to lift his leg everywhere. If you walk your dog on a leash and he marks everything on his block, he will then think of it as his territory. When dogs believe an area belongs to them, they are compelled to defend it after they have marked it.

By keeping a dog from marking every object he passes, you are cutting down the likelihood that he’ll challenge other dogs for that territory.

3-A Stitch in Time (Not Literally, I Hope)

As soon as you see aggression developing in your dog, DO SOMETHING! But that something has to come from the advice and participation of a professional— a gentle, kind one—because an aggressive dog is too frightening and dangerous for you to try to rehabilitate on your own. The suggestions below are some ideas that a dog trainer may suggest to you. Or you can ask him whether any of these tactics might be appropriate for your dog.

  • Get the dog down off your level. Banish him from any furniture and off your lap, or from anywhere he was able to give you threatening eye contact.
  • Do not allow your dog on your bed. Keep the dog out of your bedroom so he can’t get up on your bed in the first place.
  • Drop a slip leash over your dog’s head. A slip leash is the kind they use in the vet’s office—it’s just a length of nylon with a ring at the end that you can form into a collar. It only costs a couple of dollars, so you can keep several of them in different spots around the house. This will help you safely move him where you want. While holding the end of this leash, you can then make a growling (or teeth-baring or otherwise threatening) dog get off a piece of furniture or follow whatever command he was unwilling to carry out.
  • Switch to a low-protein food. Various behavior problems seem to improve in some dogs who are fed a lower-protein diet. You can experiment with this by eliminating any fresh or canned meat for a while and seeing if it seems to make a difference.
  • Keep control over all food. Feeding is an issue in the wolf ancestry of dogs, and you need to maintain a definite alpha position about it. Keep strict mealtimes on a schedule that you choose. Make the dog sit before you put down his bowl. Remove any uneaten food after fifteen minutes.
  • Stop picking up your small dog. And never carry the dog. Little dogs can be as dangerously aggressive as large ones. Pampering little dogs and catering to their whims is one of the things that their owners often enjoy, but you cannot indulge in this if your dog is exhibiting any aggressive behavior.
  • Give less attention—and give it on your terms when you do. Ignore the dog more until his behavior improves. We know from the wolf-pack model that being given a cold shoulder really means something to a dog—that it shows him that the one giving the brush-off is the alpha. Also, do not respond to a dog’s nose- nudging, pawing or whining to get affection. Remember, in dog body language, these are controlling behaviors, and if you respond, you are granting the dog control, even if that is not what it means to you.
  • No kissing the dog! If you are a kisser (as I am—I just love to smooch my dogs) this may feel as though it’s depriving you of a pleasure, but there are two reasons for this rule: you need to back off on the heavy affection, and there is the implicit danger of being bitten in the face. Do not underestimate the damage done to peoples’ faces by their aggressive dogs, whom they loved more than feared.
  • Have a plan to defend yourself. While you’re trying to figure out your dog, he may turn on you without warning. You need to have a defensive retaliation plan ready. The equivalent of mace for a dog would be a squirt-bottle of water with a little lemon juice in it, or a strong propellant breath-spray such as Binaca (this contradicts the earlier dismissal of the lemon-juice trick as unkind, but here we are talking about self-defense, and if you have a dog that you’re scared of, you need a valid weapon). If you’re in the kitchen, a squirt of water from the sink hose—or a squeeze in the kisser from a sports-top bottle of plain cold water (or even a pot of cold water in the face)—can have a good deterrent effect.

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Everything about aggressive dog behavior & How to stop dog aggression
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